is one of the important territories in the region and considered to be
the gate of the region to the external world. Zakho city is the center
of the territory which lies on the south- western side of the famous
plain of Sendi with fertile soil, Zakho is a beautiful city
characterized by a lot of water and nice climate, lies on Khabir river
which passes by and a branch from the river divides the city into two
parts and there is a stony bridge on it, almost was built in the reign
of Badinan Emirate, then the branch meets with the main branch which
passes by an ancient castle, in the castle, there are a bench of eight
angles, columns above them sharp curves and decorations, they made the
castle as house for their princes.
The historians have disagreed about its name and there are several
stories or opinions about it, in some Arami sources the name of the
city is mentioned which is derived from the Arami word (Zakhota) which
means the victory in relationship with the battle happened between the
Romans and the Persians near the city and ended with Romans victory.
another story, the name is developed from the Kurdish words (Zey-
Khowin) mean the river of the blood in relationship with the important
accident happened in this place and the blood is shed, this story is
near to the first one, it may refer to the battle between the Romans
and the Persians. The third opinion says that the origin of the name
came from (Zey) means the river and (Khowak) means the curved place
which blocks the water and by all means the word Zakho is repeated
widely in the Kurdish folklore songs (Zakhoka Badina).
The history of the city is accurately unknown, the prince (Jaladat
Badirkhan) has mentioned that it was an important city in the reign of
Kwiteens. It is certain that the Greek leader (Zeyzafon) passed by the
city in (401 BC) when he pulled out his army and he mentioned the
Kurdish citizens of the city when he returned home with his army.
might be flourished and extended in the position where Husseinya city
was situated and more than one Arabic sources mentioned it, they called
Khabir river by (Husseinya) and still one of the sectors holds this
name ( Husseinya).
The Kurdish historian (Sharaf Khan Badlissi) (1005 H) mentioned that it
belonged to Badinan Emirate since the days of Sultan (Hassan Beck son
of prince Sayf Deen) and appointed as the first prince to the city on
their behalf in (892 H). One of the princes built a church for the jews
in the city and still its remains are clear and in sight.
The people of Zakho depend on agriculture to earn their living
specially the winter crops like wheat, barley, chick- peas, various
types of peas and beans and different kinds of fruit trees by
exploiting Sendi plain and other flat areas which can be benefited from
them beside the summer crops like tomatoes, rice, tobacco, other types
of vegetables. Zakho territory is well- known in growing trees such as
populus, wal- nuts, pomegranates. The production rates are very high
because of the fertility of lands and the availability of fresh water.
The city was also considered to be the main source of making and
exporting the folklore clothes (Shall and Shapik) but it started to
shrink because of the shortage in the materials used in making the
clothes and men shifted to wear clothes made of different types of
cloth. The city is regarded as the gate of the region to the external
world therefore it becomes an important commercial center and the
majority of Zakho people work in trade and there are many trade
companies in the city. Zakho city is full of historical remains, Duhok
Archaeology Office listed (15) archaeological locations and they are:


This bridge is erected over Khabir
river to the east of the city. There are different stories or opinions
concerning its construction, (Hamarteen) says it is Roman, (Asskeef)
says it is Greek and one of the leaders of the great Alexandar AL-
Makadoni his name was (Slowkas) ordered to erect the bridge and some of
the archaeologists in the Iraqi General Directorate of Archaeology
think it might be erected by one of the Badinan Sultans but it is
certain that the new bridge is erected on the remains of the ancient
one. We think that one of the Badinan princes renovated it and repaired
what was destroyed from the bridge. There is a famous epic in the from
of a song in the Kurdish language about the construction of the bridge.
The length of the bridge is about (114M), the width is about (4.70M)
the height from the water surface is about (15.50M)it is erected by
carved stones and consists of a wide and high curve in the middle and
other smaller curves on the sides totally they are five curves. The
walls are built by carved lime stones and they are put together in a
beautiful and decorated way by using lime for plastering the walls. The
history of Dalal bridge construction can not be identified because
there are no signs, statues and writings on the bridge to show its
erection date.

Pera Dalal) is an ancient name called by Zakho people, in some sectors
they call it (Pera Mazen) mean the great bridge. It has another name
which is ( Aabassi bridge) it is a new one named at the thirtieths from
this century by an official order from the Mayor of Zakho at that time,
the archaeologist (Conrad Brouice) mentioned it and visited it in 15th
of April, 1909 under name of Khabir bridge.


It lies in the city center on the
western of Khabir river and it is still in sight, it was the governing
house in the reign of Badinan Emirate but the prince (Ali Khan 1205-
1212H) renovated and extended the castle. The castle was erected on the
ruins of an older castle because the remained parts indicate that it
was a strong and hard castle built by big pebble stones and coated with
gypsum, still there is a huge tower erected by sequared stones still in

 3- Qubad
Pasha castle

This castle situates in the
cemetery of Zakho, it has a hexagon shape, six windows and a gate as an
enterance. Eathenware and lime were used in building and plastering the
castle with writings and pictures on it but they are removed at the
present time.


Kesta was an ancint city, its
history belonged to the Assyrian periods, since Assyrian, Greek and
Islamic coins and statues were found in this city. The late Shamdeen
had written about Kesta remains in Ikha magazine in May, 1933 and about
other archaeological locations. It is far from the governorate center
in abour (58)km. The territory area is about (1378) sqkm and contains
three districts, they are:


The center is Ibraheem Khalil
town, it is considered to be the main enterance of the region to the
external world in which an international road passes by the town to
The district center lies close to the meeting point of Heezal river to
Khabir river where the international bridge passing by Turkey. The name
of the town came from the village where the tomb of the father of the
prophets (Ibraheem Khalil) is found. It is considered to be a tourism
area in itself and a recreational ground or a general park specially
for Zakho people and for the whole governorate.

people depend on agriculture specially winter crops like wheat, barley,
chick- peas, lentils, gram and others even in an insufficient way
beside summer crops like tomatoes, rice and all kinds of vegetables
also growing fruit fields, (lefi) area is famous in fruit fields
specially in growing fruit trees like (Armishte) pomegranates, various
types of grapes, peaches, apples and olives which are considered to be
an ancient crop in the area by getting benefit from the water of Khabir
One of the most important mountains is the White mountain which extends
from the south of Doski district towards the west and forms the
southern border for the district, too. The international road passes by
the district to Zakho city across (Geli Sepi) mean white narrow
passage. The series which situates to the west of the road is called
Dezhiwar (Bekher) mountain to the hills overlooking Peshekhabir river
in the triangle border.There are many ancient remains and locations in
the district, Duhok Archaeology Office listed (22) archaeological
positions and they are:
1-Armishet castle 2-ruins of
Derabeen and Peshekhabir 3-remains of Betas 4-ruins of Dornakh
5-remains of Ibraheem Khalil.
The district area is about (295)sqkm and contains (43) villages all of
them were destroyed except the district center during Anfal operations,
the western areas from the district lands were regarded to be non-
person zones by excusing the passing of strategic oil line (tube) in
them. After the fromation of Region Goverment, the life is returned to
the villages and the hands of building and reconstruction reached the


It lies to the north eastern of
the territory center and it was forming with the neighbouring district
Goli one district called (Goli and Sendi district), its center was
(Berseve) village then detached in (1924) and the center remained
there, after that changed to (Sharanish) village to centeralise Sendi
area, finally changed to (Darkar) enforced collective town after the
displacement and emigration campaigns carried out by Baath regime. The
lands in the district can be divided into two areas disjoin them
Zhigera mountain series, since the area which lies to the north of it,
distinguished by having many mountains, heights and deep valleys with
many springs and small rivers like the follwing tributaries:
1-Sharanish- Istablan- Bahnona Sendi- Heezal.
2-Garowk- Marsees- Barikh- Bahnona Sendi- Heezal.
The second area is Sendi plain with rich sources, Zakho city itself
situates in southern side of this plain, a paved road passes in the
middle of the plain which joins the territory center in addition to
joining Goli district and Barwari Bala to Zakho city.

majority of people work in agriculture of winter types such as wheat,
barley, chick- peas, lentils and other crops by exploiting Sendi plain
beside summer crops like tomatoes, rice, tobacco and others. The
district is well- known in making fruit fields like apples, walnuts,
pears, pomegranates and peaches it is also famous in growing populus,
gallnuts and oaks.
district has the fame of breeding the cattle, goats and sheep by
getting advantage from fertile pasture lands and fine climate in
summer. The northern areas of the district can be made nice and
beautiful resorts since the temperature does not exceed more than
(32)C, the mountains are covered by dense forests specially in
Sharanish, Geli Sepi and Agha Sarket Sendia areas. The most important
mountains in the distyict are Zheegera and Khamatoir.
district is considered to be a store for archaeological positions which
remove the cover of bright pages telling the story desceneded
generations in this area, Duhok Archaeology Office recorded (48)
ancient locations and they are:
Rabanka (Peshock) 2-Pera Sheik Yousef 3-Sanat castles 4-Geli Barikh
castles 5-Sulaman Sendi castle 6-Istablan caves and others.
The district areas is about (531) sqkm and contains (69) villages were
destroyed before and during Anfal compaign, enforced collective town
were built in Sendi plain to inbabit the displaced citizens of the
villages such as (Darkar, Heezava, Bersive, Telkabar and Darhuzan
village) collective towns, some of Barwari Bala citizens were inhabited
in the collective town with the citizens of the district itself.


The center is Batifa town which
lies in the north- east of the territory center, it was forming one
district with Sendi district but detached in (1924) under the name of
Goli district. (Demka) village was made its center, then changed to
(Bahnona) village and after that settled in (Batifa). It situates on
the main road which joins Barwari Bala area to Zakho city. The meaning
of (Goli) in Kurdish language is the curved plain area in which snow
storms are blown there in winter.

lands of the district can be divided into two areas, a plain area forms
an extension to Sendi plain to Khabir river, the second area is a rough
mountainous area, there are many deep valleys, mountainous heights with
difficult paths in this area, also there are many rivers, brooks and
springs which benefit in agriculture, people of the district depend on
agriculture in winter season like wheat, barley, chick- peas, lentils,
gram and others by extension to Sendi plain in addition to summer crops
like rice, tomatoes and all types of vegetables, people shifted in the
recent years to grow fruitful trees in growing crops like the fields of
apples, peaches, pears, pomegranates, apricots and others. Its valleys
are famous in growing populus trees beside types of grapes, walnuts and
nuts by getting benefit from the water of Zeriza and Seerkotik small
rivers also the utmost benefit from Khabir river. The people of the
district breed the cattle by getting benefit from the existance of
fertile pasture lands in the mountains since the climate is nice and
water is available.
most important mountains in the district are: Nizdor, Rawaysi, Kashan,
Sarke Showini, Bahnona and Shabani.
The most important rivers in the district are: Zeriza, Seerkotik and
There are many historical and ancient places in the district, Duhok
Archaeology Office listed (15) locations and they are:
the famous castle 2-Kashan castle 3-Bekwane castle 4-Pera Nizdor on
Khabir river, it might be erected in the reign of Badinan Emirate 5-the
ruins of Kiret, Begova and others.
district area is about (208) sqkm and contains (60) villages were
destroyed before and during Anfal campaign except the district center
and Begova enforced collective town but after the formation of
Kurdistan Region Government, the hands of erection and reconstruction
reached the villages and by bringing life to most of them.