is one of the important territories in the region and considered to be
the gate of the region to the external world. Zakho city is the center
of the territory which lies on the south- western side of the famous
plain of Sendi with fertile soil, Zakho is a beautiful city
characterized by a lot of water and nice climate, lies on Khabir river
which passes by and a branch from the river divides the city into two
parts and there is a stony bridge on it, almost was built in the reign
of Badinan Emirate, then the branch meets with the main branch which
passes by an ancient castle, in the castle, there are a bench of eight
angles, columns above them sharp curves and decorations, they made the
castle as house for their princes.
The historians have disagreed about its name and there are several
stories or opinions about it, in some Arami sources the name of the
city is mentioned which is derived from the Arami word (Zakhota) which
means the victory in relationship with the battle happened between the
Romans and the Persians near the city and ended with Romans victory.
In another story, the name is developed from the
Kurdish words (Zey- Khowin) mean the river of the blood in relationship
with the important accident happened in this place and the blood is
shed, this story is near to the first one, it may refer to the battle
between the Romans and the Persians. The third opinion says that the
origin of the name came from (Zey) means the river and (Khowak) means
the curved place which blocks the water and by all means the word Zakho
is repeated widely in the Kurdish folklore songs (Zakhoka Badina).
The history of the city is accurately unknown, the prince (Jaladat
Badirkhan) has mentioned that it was an important city in the reign of
Kwiteens. It is certain that the Greek leader (Zeyzafon) passed by the
city in (401 BC) when he pulled out his army and he mentioned the
Kurdish citizens of the city when he returned home with his army.
It might be flourished and extended in the
position where Husseinya city was situated and more than one Arabic
sources mentioned it, they called Khabir river by (Husseinya) and still
one of the sectors holds this name ( Husseinya).
The Kurdish historian (Sharaf Khan Badlissi) (1005 H) mentioned that it
belonged to Badinan Emirate since the days of Sultan (Hassan Beck son
of prince Sayf Deen) and appointed as the first prince to the city on
their behalf in (892 H). One of the princes built a church for the jews
in the city and still its remains are clear and in sight.
The people of Zakho depend on agriculture to earn their living
specially the winter crops like wheat, barley, chick- peas, various
types of peas and beans and different kinds of fruit trees by
exploiting Sendi plain and other flat areas which can be benefited from
them beside the summer crops like tomatoes, rice, tobacco, other types
of vegetables. Zakho territory is well- known in growing trees such as
populus, wal- nuts, pomegranates. The production rates are very high
because of the fertility of lands and the availability of fresh water.
The city was also considered to be the main source of making and
exporting the folklore clothes (Shall and Shapik) but it started to
shrink because of the shortage in the materials used in making the
clothes and men shifted to wear clothes made of different types of
cloth. The city is regarded as the gate of the region to the external
world therefore it becomes an important commercial center and the
majority of Zakho people work in trade and there are many trade
companies in the city. Zakho city is full of historical remains, Duhok
Archaeology Office listed (15) archaeological locations and they are:
1-Dalal bridge

This bridge is erected over Khabir river to the east of the city. There
are different stories or opinions concerning its construction,
(Hamarteen) says it is Roman, (Asskeef) says it is Greek and one of the
leaders of the great Alexandar AL- Makadoni his name was (Slowkas)
ordered to erect the bridge and some of the archaeologists in the Iraqi
General Directorate of Archaeology think it might be erected by one of
the Badinan Sultans but it is certain that the new bridge is erected on
the remains of the ancient one. We think that one of the Badinan
princes renovated it and repaired what was destroyed from the bridge.
There is a famous epic in the from of a song in the Kurdish language
about the construction of the bridge. The length of the bridge is about
(114M), the width is about (4.70M) the height from the water surface is
about (15.50M)it is erected by carved stones and consists of a wide and
high curve in the middle and other smaller curves on the sides totally
they are five curves. The walls are built by carved lime stones and
they are put together in a beautiful and decorated way by using lime
for plastering the walls. The history of Dalal bridge construction can
not be identified because there are no signs, statues and writings on
the bridge to show its erection date.

( Pera Dalal) is an ancient name called by Zakho
people, in some sectors they call it (Pera Mazen) mean the great
bridge. It has another name which is ( Aabassi bridge) it is a new one
named at the thirtieths from this century by an official order from the
Mayor of Zakho at that time, the archaeologist (Conrad Brouice)
mentioned it and visited it in 15th of April, 1909 under name of Khabir
2-Zakho castle

It lies in the city center on the western of Khabir river and it is
still in sight, it was the governing house in the reign of Badinan
Emirate but the prince (Ali Khan 1205- 1212H) renovated and extended
the castle. The castle was erected on the ruins of an older castle
because the remained parts indicate that it was a strong and hard
castle built by big pebble stones and coated with gypsum, still there
is a huge tower erected by sequared stones still in sight.

3- Qubad Pasha castle

This castle situates in the cemetery of Zakho, it has a hexagon shape,
six windows and a gate as an enterance. Eathenware and lime were used
in building and plastering the castle with writings and pictures on it
but they are removed at the present time.

4-Kesta remains

Kesta was an ancint city, its history belonged to the Assyrian periods,
since Assyrian, Greek and Islamic coins and statues were found in this
city. The late Shamdeen had written about Kesta remains in Ikha
magazine in May, 1933 and about other archaeological locations. It is
far from the governorate center in abour (58)km. The territory area is
about (1378) sqkm and contains three districts, they are:

1-Rezgari district

The center is Ibraheem Khalil town, it is considered to be the main
enterance of the region to the external world in which an international
road passes by the town to Turkey.
The district center lies close to the meeting point of Heezal river to
Khabir river where the international bridge passing by Turkey. The name
of the town came from the village where the tomb of the father of the
prophets (Ibraheem Khalil) is found. It is considered to be a tourism
area in itself and a recreational ground or a general park specially
for Zakho people and for the whole governorate.

The people depend on agriculture specially
winter crops like wheat, barley, chick- peas, lentils, gram and others
even in an insufficient way beside summer crops like tomatoes, rice and
all kinds of vegetables also growing fruit fields, (lefi) area is
famous in fruit fields specially in growing fruit trees like (Armishte)
pomegranates, various types of grapes, peaches, apples and olives which
are considered to be an ancient crop in the area by getting benefit
from the water of Khabir river.
One of the most important mountains is the White mountain which extends
from the south of Doski district towards the west and forms the
southern border for the district, too. The international road passes by
the district to Zakho city across (Geli Sepi) mean white narrow
passage. The series which situates to the west of the road is called
Dezhiwar (Bekher) mountain to the hills overlooking Peshekhabir river
in the triangle border.There are many ancient remains and locations in
the district, Duhok Archaeology Office listed (22) archaeological
positions and they are:
1-Armishet castle 2-ruins of Derabeen and
Peshekhabir 3-remains of Betas 4-ruins of Dornakh 5-remains of Ibraheem
The district area is about (295)sqkm and contains (43) villages all of
them were destroyed except the district center during Anfal operations,
the western areas from the district lands were regarded to be non-
person zones by excusing the passing of strategic oil line (tube) in
them. After the fromation of Region Goverment, the life is returned to
the villages and the hands of building and reconstruction reached the
2-Sendi district

It lies to the north eastern of the territory center and it was forming
with the neighbouring district Goli one district called (Goli and Sendi
district), its center was (Berseve) village then detached in (1924) and
the center remained there, after that changed to (Sharanish) village to
centeralise Sendi area, finally changed to (Darkar) enforced collective
town after the displacement and emigration campaigns carried out by
Baath regime. The lands in the district can be divided into two areas
disjoin them Zhigera mountain series, since the area which lies to the
north of it, distinguished by having many mountains, heights and deep
valleys with many springs and small rivers like the follwing
1-Sharanish- Istablan- Bahnona Sendi- Heezal.
2-Garowk- Marsees- Barikh- Bahnona Sendi- Heezal.
The second area is Sendi plain with rich sources, Zakho city itself
situates in southern side of this plain, a paved road passes in the
middle of the plain which joins the territory center in addition to
joining Goli district and Barwari Bala to Zakho city.

The majority of people work in agriculture of
winter types such as wheat, barley, chick- peas, lentils and other
crops by exploiting Sendi plain beside summer crops like tomatoes,
rice, tobacco and others. The district is well- known in making fruit
fields like apples, walnuts, pears, pomegranates and peaches it is also
famous in growing populus, gallnuts and oaks.
The district has the fame of breeding the
cattle, goats and sheep by getting advantage from fertile pasture lands
and fine climate in summer. The northern areas of the district can be
made nice and beautiful resorts since the temperature does not exceed
more than (32)C, the mountains are covered by dense forests specially
in Sharanish, Geli Sepi and Agha Sarket Sendia areas. The most
important mountains in the distyict are Zheegera and Khamatoir.
The district is considered to be a store for
archaeological positions which remove the cover of bright pages telling
the story desceneded generations in this area, Duhok Archaeology Office
recorded (48) ancient locations and they are:
1-Pera Rabanka (Peshock) 2-Pera Sheik Yousef
3-Sanat castles 4-Geli Barikh castles 5-Sulaman Sendi castle 6-Istablan
caves and others.
The district areas is about (531) sqkm and contains (69) villages were
destroyed before and during Anfal compaign, enforced collective town
were built in Sendi plain to inbabit the displaced citizens of the
villages such as (Darkar, Heezava, Bersive, Telkabar and Darhuzan
village) collective towns, some of Barwari Bala citizens were inhabited
in the collective town with the citizens of the district itself.
3-Goli district

The center is Batifa town which lies in the north- east of the
territory center, it was forming one district with Sendi district but
detached in (1924) under the name of Goli district. (Demka) village was
made its center, then changed to (Bahnona) village and after that
settled in (Batifa). It situates on the main road which joins Barwari
Bala area to Zakho city. The meaning of (Goli) in Kurdish language is
the curved plain area in which snow storms are blown there in winter.

The lands of the district can be divided into
two areas, a plain area forms an extension to Sendi plain to Khabir
river, the second area is a rough mountainous area, there are many deep
valleys, mountainous heights with difficult paths in this area, also
there are many rivers, brooks and springs which benefit in agriculture,
people of the district depend on agriculture in winter season like
wheat, barley, chick- peas, lentils, gram and others by extension to
Sendi plain in addition to summer crops like rice, tomatoes and all
types of vegetables, people shifted in the recent years to grow
fruitful trees in growing crops like the fields of apples, peaches,
pears, pomegranates, apricots and others. Its valleys are famous in
growing populus trees beside types of grapes, walnuts and nuts by
getting benefit from the water of Zeriza and Seerkotik small rivers
also the utmost benefit from Khabir river. The people of the district
breed the cattle by getting benefit from the existance of fertile
pasture lands in the mountains since the climate is nice and water is
The most important mountains in the district
are: Nizdor, Rawaysi, Kashan, Sarke Showini, Bahnona and Shabani.
The most important rivers in the district are: Zeriza, Seerkotik and
There are many historical and ancient places in the district, Duhok
Archaeology Office listed (15) locations and they are:
1-Shabani the famous castle 2-Kashan castle
3-Bekwane castle 4-Pera Nizdor on Khabir river, it might be erected in
the reign of Badinan Emirate 5-the ruins of Kiret, Begova and others.
The district area is about (208) sqkm and
contains (60) villages were destroyed before and during Anfal campaign
except the district center and Begova enforced collective town but
after the formation of Kurdistan Region Government, the hands of
erection and reconstruction reached the villages and by bringing life
to most of them.